Market Research Reports http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/MarketsandMarkets XML Feed en-us Copyright MarketsandMarkets 4/21/2014 10:03:29 AM GMT 4/21/2014 10:03:29 AM GMT 300 Market Research Reports http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/ MarketsandMarkets – Market Research Company publishes about 120 business market researchreports a year across 10 main industries. Market research reports and industry trends analysis available from MarketsandMarkets.4/21/2014 10:03:29 AM GMT Food Colors Market By Type [Natural (Anthocyanin, Carotenoid, Caramel) & Synthetic (Blue, Green, Red, Yellow)], Application (Beverage, Bakery & Confectionery, Dairy & Frozen product, Meat product) & Geography - Global Trends & Forecast To 2019..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/food-colors-market-36725323.htmlColors are used by food & beverage manufacturers to enhance the color of the product so that it becomes attractive for the consumer. The major drivers for the global food colors market are the increased health concerns and ‘clean label foods, which have resulted in the use of advanced technology and new products. The report provides a study on the global food colors market categorizing food colors on the basis of their types, applications, and geography. The report is inclusive of the global as well as regional forecasts for the food colors demand....4/17/2014 GMT Bioactive Ingredients & Product Market by Ingredient (Probiotics, Proteins, Plant Extracts, Minerals, Vitamins, Fibers, Carotenoids), by Product (Functional Foods, & Beverage, Dietary Supplements, Animal Nutrition, Personal Care) - Global Trends & Forecast to 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/bioactive-ingredients-market-46981333.htmlThe bioactive ingredients market is emerging with increased awareness and growing health concerns. People are turning towards healthy food that fulfills the requirement of essential nutrients in the body. With increasing education, people are gaining awareness regarding the types of food & beverages that help in maintaining a balanced diet and proper health. Manufacturers are also taking into consideration the convenience factor for consumers and providing them with healthy nutrients in the form of food & beverages instead of supplements. Cosmeceuticals is a growing concept which combines bioactive with personal care. For instance, various mineral-enriched or vitamin-enriched herbal creams, shampoos, etc., are entering the market with guarantees of better skincare, hair care, etc. ...4/17/2014 GMT Flow Cytometry Market by Technology (Cell & Bead-based), Products & Services (Reagents, Instruments, Software, & Accessories), Application (Research & Clinical), End User (Commercial Organizations & Diagnostics Laboratories) - Global Forecasts to 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/flow-cytometry-market-65374584.htmlOn the basis of the type of technology, the flow cytometry market is segmented into cell-based,bead-based, and others. The cell-based flow cytometry segment accounted for the largest share of the global flow cytometry market in 2013. This is mainly because cell-based assays encompass the benefits of testing the compounds activity against molecular targets within the context of living cells; thus it is increasingly used in drug discovery processes. However, bead based flow cytometry is expected to growth at a higher rate as compared to the cell based ones. Furthermore, on the basis of products, the global flow cytometry market has been segmented into instruments, reagents and consumables, software, services, and accessories....4/17/2014 GMT Wireless Network Security Market by Solutions (Firewall, IPS/IDS, Encryption, I&AM, UTM), Services (Security Operations, Consulting, Managed Security Services) - Worldwide Market Forecasts and Analysis (2014-2019)..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/wireless-network-security-market-118272079.htmlWireless networking security solutions are the set of IT systems, software, and hardware that protects wireless networks from attacks and data theft. With the rise in adoption of wireless networks, it has become inevitable for organizations to deploy wireless network security solutions to guard themselves. Since most of the organizations today rely on wireless networks, the adoption is being observed to be high and the growth will be higher in future....4/17/2014 GMT Cloud Database and DBaaS Market by Databases (SQL, Nosql), Software (Database Application Builder, Data Scaling and Replication, Back-Up and Recovery, Database Encryption), Deployment Models (Iaas, Paas, Dbaas) and Service Models (Public Cloud, Private Cloud, Virtual Private Cloud, Hybrid Cloud) & Organization Size (Small And Medium, Large) - Global Advancements, Market Forecasts and Analysis (2014-2019)..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/cloud-database-as-a-service-dbaas-market-1112.htmlIn the recent years, there has been substantial demand of cloud services in the market across different verticals. The same goes for the demand of cloud database. The demand has been mainly surging in industries that relay huge amount of data for high-performance applications and services. Further, issues of security and reduced infrastructure and operational cost provided by the cloud database vendors have increased the demand of cloud database services and Database as a Service (DBaaS). With offerings such as Do It Yourself (DIY), multi-tenancy, several organizations having multiple requirements have adopted various services offered by cloud database providers. Moreover, investments are being made in cloud database services through research and development by majority of the market players....4/16/2014 GMT High Speed Camera Market by Usage, Component (Image Sensors, Lens, Memory Systems, Image Processors and others), Accessory, Application (Automotive, Military, Defense & Aerospace, Research, Design & testing and others) & Geography - Global Trends & Forecasts to 2014 - 2020..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/high-speed-camera-market-54616427.htmlHigh speed cameras are the devices for slow motion capturing of events; and in terms of the frame rates, the market is extremely fragmented as, technically, the frame rates of a commercial high speed camera market can range anywhere between 100fps to millions of fps. Of the several frame rates, the ones that are expected to lead the market in terms of the growth are 1000 fps – 10000fps, whereas a normal digital camera can capture images at frame rates of only 30fps. 1000fps -10000fps frame rates is the best choice for high speed cameras for many of the applications, and the market for high speed cameras in this frame rate is expected to grow at the highest CAGR for the next five years, among all the frame rates of the high speed cameras....4/16/2014 GMT Feed Antioxidants Market by Type (BHA, BHT, Ethoxyquin & Others), By Livestock (Swine, Cattle, Poultry, Aquatic Animals & Others), By Geography - Global Trends & Forecasts To 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/animal-feed-antioxidants-market-138013648.htmlThe market for feed antioxidants is estimated to reach $238.5 million by 2018, with a projected CAGR of 4.5% from 2013 to 2018. Feed antioxidants are organic compounds that are combined with basic feed mix to improve the shelf life of feed. These help in reducing the rate of oxidation of feed, thus preventing wastage of feed. This helps the farmer, in a long run, to bring down feed costs, thus increasing profitability. A variety of feed antioxidants are available, which are used in different concentrations depending upon the environmental factors and the type of feed. The type of feed antioxidant that is mostly used in feed grade of animals is BHA....4/16/2014 GMT Fluid Management & Visualization Systems Market by Product (Suction & Irrigation, Dialyzer, Fluid Warming & Waste Management, Endoscopic Camera, Tubing’s, Bloodlines), & Application (GI, Urology, Arthroscopy, Gynecology) - Global Forecasts to 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/fluid-management-visualization-systems-market-153551158.htmlOver the years, the demand for fluid management and visualization systems has increased significantly owing to the rapid rise in the number of people prone to gastrointestinal, laparoscopic, orthopedic, neurological, and nephrological diseases; growing preference for minimally invasive surgeries; cost-efficiency of these surgeries in terms of pre- and post-operation care costs and length of stay at hospitals. The technological advancements and breakthroughs in the field of fluid management and visualization systems are expected to drive the global market in the coming years. However, globally, there is a shortage of specialists (physicians and surgeons) who perform these surgeries....4/16/2014 GMT Food Diagnostics Systems Market [By Type (Hybridization, Chromatography, Spectrometry, Biosensor, Immunoassay, Testing Kit)], Consumables Market [By Type (Reagents, Disinfectants, Test Accessories)] & By Geography – Global Trends & Forecast To 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/food-diagnostics-systems-225194671.htmlThe food diagnostics market size is projected to increase with rising concerns over food quality and safety, and the implementation of stringent regulations on food safety and foodborne illness prevention. Globalization of food trade has further extended the scope for the food diagnostics market. The emerging markets with increasing demand for food testing are estimated to generate potential opportunities in the market. ...4/16/2014 GMT Public/Private Cloud Storage Market by Solution (Cloud Storage Gateways, Backup & Recovery, Data Movement & Access), by Software (Data Replication, HSM & Archiving, Security & Storage Resource Management) - Worldwide Forecasts & Analysis (2014 - 2019)..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/cloud-storage-market-902.htmlThe digital data being produced by a huge number of Small and Medium Businesses (SMBs) and large enterprises is increasing at a very fast pace, creating the need of a secure data storage system. Cloud storage, which is a networked virtual pool of enterprise-class storage, caters the data handling needs of organizations by providing cost efficient data management and a secure and reliable storage infrastructure....4/15/2014 GMT Carbohydrase Market by Applications (Food & Beverage, Animal Feed, Pharmaceuticals and Others), by Type (Amylases, Cellulases, and Others), Source (Microorganisms, Animals, and Plants) and by Geography - Global Trends & Forecasts to 2019..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/carbohydrase-market-70729745.htmlThis report analyses the carbohydrase market by geography, application, type, and source. Geographically, the report is segmented into North-America Asia-Pacific, Europe, and Rest of the World. The applications covered in this report are food & beverage industry, animal feed industry, pharmaceuticals industry, and others (textile, leather, pulp and paper, bio-fuel, and others). The types of carbohydrases included in this report are amylases, cellulases, and others (mannanases, lactase, pectinases etc.). The purpose of using carbohydrases in various applications may differ depending on the intended benefits and functional characteristics of the ingredient....4/15/2014 GMT Process Analyzer Market by Segments (Gas Analyzers, Liquid Analyzers) , Types (Electrochemical, Infrared, Paramagnetic, Zirconia, MOS, Laser, Catalytic, PID, Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, Turbidity, Titro, and TOC) & Geography - Global Trends & Forecast to 2020..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/process-analyzers-market-148603279.htmlThe process analyzer is an instrument for determining, the chemical composition of substances involved in a chemical process directly, or for measuring the physical parameters of components identified in the composition. The process analyzer industry has been in existence for several years and it comprises of analytical chemistry, process chemistry, multivariate data analysis, and so on. The need for analyzers is generated by the need of monitoring, measuring and analyzing of the sample or the process....4/15/2014 GMT Nucleic Acid Isolation and Purification Market by Technology (Column based, Reagent based, Magnetic bead based), Consumables & Instruments, Application (Plasmid DNA isolation, MIRNA isolation, Total RNA isolation) & by End Users - Global Forecasts to 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/nucleic-acid-isolation-purification-market-229978287.htmlThe global nucleic acid isolation and purification market is valued at $ 2,103.39 million and is poised to grow at a CAGR of 8.11% from 2013 to 2018. The technological advancements and government support through funding for research activities will be the two most important growth drivers for this market in the forecast period from 2013 to 2018....4/15/2014 GMT Cosmetic Products Market by Type (Skin, Hair, Sun, Oral, Fragrance, Color, Soap, Bath, Shower, Personal Hygiene), Distribution Channel (Supermarket, Pharmacy, Departmental, Specialty, Direct, Internet, Salon) & Geography - Global Trends & Forecasts to 2019..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/cosmetic-products-market-240004417.htmlCosmetic products are manufactured by using chemicals, minerals, and some natural ingredients. Technological advancement in the manufacturing of cosmetic products is one of the driving factors for the cosmetic products market. The economic development in the emerging countries has further increased the utilization of cosmetic products as consumers have more disposable income....4/15/2014 GMT South American Automotive Production Outlook to 2018 by Vehicle Type (Passenger Cars, LCV, and HCV), Fuel Type (Gasoline, Diesel, and Others) and Key Country Level Markets (Brazil and Argentina)..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/south-american-automotive-production-market-88475013.htmlThe auto industry witnessed remarkable growth in South America in the recent past which is mainly attributed to the explosive economic growth of the region....4/14/2014 GMT Cell Analysis Market by Instruments (Flow Cytometer, Microscope, Microfluidics, QPCR), Consumables, Application (Cell Identification, Cell Viability, Cell Proliferation, Cytology, Signal Transduction, Single Cell Analysis) - Global Forecast to 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/cell-analysis-market-157543946.htmlThe global cell analysis market is segmented on the basis of products, applications, end users, and geography. The products market is further segmented into instruments and consumables. Based on applications, the cell analysis market is divided into Cell identification, cell interaction, cell viability, cell proliferation, cell structure studies, cell signaling pathway/signal transduction, cell counting and quality control, target identification and validation, and single cell analysis. Based on end users, the cell analysis market is categorized into hospitals, academics and government institutes, laboratories, contract research organizations (CROs), pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, and others. Based on geography, this market is divided into North America, Europe, Asia, and the Rest of the World (RoW)....4/14/2014 GMT Atomic Spectroscopy Market by Technology ( X-Ray Fluorescence / Atomic Absorption / X-Ray Diffraction / ICP-MS ) & by Application ( Food & Beverage / Pharmaceutical / Industrial Chemistry / Biotechnology / Environment ) - Competitive Landscape - Global Forecasts & Trends to 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/atomic-spectroscopy-market-174401666.htmlThe demand for atomic spectroscopy instrumentation has been quite robust due to its wide arena of applications. Technologies like X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) have important quality control applications in the detection of hazardous elements in consumable commercial goods, semiconductors, and electronics, among others....4/14/2014 GMT Waste Heat Recovery Market by Application (Pre-heating, Steam Generation, Electricity & Others), and Industry (Petroleum Refining, Heavy Metal, Cement, Chemical, Natural Gas Compression, Pulp/Paper Industry & Others) - Global Trends & Forecast to 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/waste-heat-recovery-system-market-202657867.htmlThe industrial sector accounts for one third of the total energy being consumed in the society. It is estimated that around 20%-50% of industrial energy input is lost in the environment. This waste heat arises due to both equipment inefficiencies and thermodynamic limitations of the equipment and processes. Although some of the waste heat losses from the industrial processes are inevitable, the industrial facilities can reduce these losses by improving their equipment efficiency or installing waste heat recovery technologies....4/14/2014 GMT Phosphate Fertilizers Market By Active Ingredient (Diammonium Phosphate, Monoammonium Phosphate, Triple Superphosphate, Single Superphosphate, Superphosphate, Calcium Phosphate), By Crop Type Cereals & Grains, Oil Seeds, Fruits & Vegetables), By Geography: Trends & Forecasts To 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/phosphate-fertilizers-market-265325859.htmlPhosphorus is an essential nutrient required for plant growth. It helps in root development, plant maturation, and seed development. Together with nitrogen and potassium, phosphorus is one of the most important elements for plant life. These features make phosphorus essential to maximize the production of grains and forage. Modern farming is dependent on the use of inorganic fertilizers that contain phosphorus....4/14/2014 GMT Tissue Diagnostics Market by Technology (Immunohistochemistry, in Situ Hybridization, Digital pathology & Workflow, Special Staining), Disease (Breast Cancer, Gastric Cancer, Lymphoma, Prostate Cancer, Non Small Cell Lung Cancer and Others), Product (Instruments and Consumables), End-Users (Hospitals, Pharmaceutical companies, Research Laboratories, Contract Research Organizations and Others) & by Region (The Americas, Europe, BRIC, Japan & RoW) - Trends & Forecast to 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/tissue-diagnostics-market-1063949.htmlThe global tissue diagnostics market is segmented on the basis of technology, disease, end-users and region. The technology segments included in the report are immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, digital pathology and workflow, and special staining. The disease segments are breast cancer, gastric cancer, lymphoma, prostate cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, and others. The end-users segments are hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, research laboratories, contract research organizations, and others; while the geographic segments are the Americas, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Rest of the World (RoW)....4/11/2014 GMT Mine & IED Detection System Market by Product (Vehicle Mounted, Hand Held, Robotics, Biosensors), Application (Defense, Homeland Security and Commercial), Region & Country - Global Trends & Forecasts to 2014 - 2020..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/mine-ied-detection-system-market-78121179.htmlThe report provides a market analysis of the mine and IED detection systems market over the next 6 years. It talks about the analysis of drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities that impact the industry. It also provides the details about the industry and technology trends that are currently prevailing in the mine and IED market. ...4/11/2014 GMT Mobile Device Management Market by Solutions (Device Management, Application Management, Security Management, Network Service Management), Deployment Type (Cloud and On-premise) - Global Advancements, Market Forecast and Analysis (2014 – 2019)..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/mobile-device-management-market-105562389.htmlSince the last decade, there has been a tremendous growth in the number of mobile users across the globe. Hence, the number of employees bringing one's own mobile devices such as Smart phones and Tablets to one's workplace has also increased. This has definitely made the work environment more mobile as employees can now access the business information from one's mobile devices irrespective of one's location....4/11/2014 GMT Benzene Market & Its Derivatives (Ethylbenzene, Cumene, Cyclohexane, Nitrobenzene, and Alkylbenzene) Market by Application & Geography – Trends and Forecasts to 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/benzene-derivatives-market-162381860.htmlBenzene is an organic compound with molecular formula C6H6, which is among the most consumed petrochemicals used in the industry. It is an important feedstock to manufacture various chemicals that further serve diverse industries including building and construction, textile, electrical and electronics, and automotive. Its main application segments include the manufacturing of ethylbenzene, cyclohexane, cumene, nitrobenzene, and alkylbenzene. It is also utilized for manufacturing maleic anhydride and as a solvent....4/11/2014 GMT Specialty Food Ingredients Market by Type (Flavors, Colors, Texturants, Preservatives, Sweeteners, Nutraceuticals, Starches, Cultures, Acidulants) & by Application (Bakery & Confectionery, Dairy, Beverages, Meat Products) - Global Trends & Forecast to 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/speciality-food-ingredients-market-252775011.htmlThis report analyzes the specialty food ingredients market by type, application, and geography. The specialty food ingredients types included in this report are food colors, acidulants, food & beverage enzymes, specialty starches, food emulsifiers, food and beverage starter cultures, sugar substitutes, food preservatives, hydrocolloids, food flavors, and functional food ingredients. The applications covered in this report include bakery, confectionery, dairy, convenience foods, beverages, meat & seafood products, and functional food products. Geographically, the report is segmented into Asia-Pacific, Europe, North America, and Rest of the World. The purpose of using specialty food ingredients in various applications may differ depending on the functional characteristics of the ingredients....4/11/2014 GMT Wireless Gigabit (WiGig) Market (IEEE 802.11ad, 60 GHz, 7Gbps Wi-Fi, Wireless Gigabit Alliance, Access Points, Routers, Residential Gateways, Backhaul Equipment) - Worldwide Forecasts, Business Models, Technology Roadmap and Analysis (2014 - 2019)..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/wireless-gigabit-wigig-market-812.htmlWireless Gigabit – WiGig is emerging as one of the most promising technology which enables high speed wireless data sharing at multi gigabit speed. It provides several advantages including high speed data transfer up to the speed of 7 Gbps, provides a cable free environment and consumes less power thus reduce the cost to a greater extent. It also ensures utmost security and accuracy in transferring the data and supports to all three wireless frequency bands to access existing Wi-Fi devices....4/10/2014 GMT Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems & Services Market by Type (Wet FGD, Dry FGD, and others), by Application (Cement Manufacture, Chemical, Power Generation, Iron & Steel, and Others) - Global Trends & Forecasts to 2019..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/flue-gas-desulfurization-systems-market-862.htmlThe flue gas desulfurization market is expected to grow at a steady pace during the next five years. The market was estimated to be worth $12,931 million in 2013. The harmful effects of flue gas have lead to strengthening of emission control regulations in several nations....4/10/2014 GMT Chloromethanes Market by Type (Methyl Chloride, Methylene Chloride, Chloroform, Carbon Tetrachloride), by Geography (NA, Europe, Asia-Pacific, & ROW) & by Application - Global Trends and Forecasts to 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/chloromethanes-market-1143.htmlThe chloromethanes market, along with its end products, has witnessed a stagnant growth in the past few years and it is expected to be the same in the coming years, especially in North American and European regions. Leading manufacturers and their strategies to balance current supply-demand issues, regulations across the different regions, and newer applications development across the vertical industries will be the key influencing factors in the chloromethanes market....4/10/2014 GMT Poultry Feed Market by Type (Layers, Broilers, And Turkeys), Additives (Antibiotics, Vitamins, Antioxidants, Amino Acids, Feed Enzymes, And Feed Acidifiers) & by Geography - Global Trends & Forecasts To 2018..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/poultry-feed-market-147838333.htmlGlobally, there has been an increased demand for animal protein especially poultry meat and eggs. The increase in the average level of income, population rise, and urbanization are some of the drivers triggering the demand for poultry products and ultimately the poultry feed and poultry additives....4/10/2014 GMT Intrusion Detection System/Intrusion Prevention System (IDS/IPS) Market (Host Based IDS/IPS, Network Based IDS/IPS, Wireless IDS/IPS, On-premise & Cloud Deployment, Appliances, Software, Professional Services) - Global Advancements Forecasts & Analysis (2014-2019)..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/intrusion-detection-prevention-system-market-199381457.htmlThe market for IDS/IPS comprises of both Intrusion Detection and Intrusion Prevention System market. Intrusion Prevention Systems are the advancement of IDS and has expanded the total IDPS market. The intrusion detection and prevention market is divided into three submarkets; Network based, Host based, and Wireless....4/10/2014 GMT Next Generation Biometric Market by Technology (Fingerprint, Palm, Face, Iris, Vein, Voice & Signature), Function, Application (Government, Defense, Travel & Immigration, Home Security, Banking, Consumer Electronics & so on) & by Geography - Forecasts & Analysis 2014 - 2020..., Market Research Report: MarketsandMarketshttp://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/next-generation-biometric-technologies-market-697.htmlBiometric technology is an advanced technique for the identification of humans, based on their characteristics or traits. These traits can be face, fingerprint, iris, voice, signature, palm, vein, and DNA. The existing methods of human identification such as identification documents and PIN are not able to cope up with the growing demand for stringent security, which gives a high growth opportunity for the use of the biometric technology. This technology is very popular also because biometric characters such as face, fingerprint, hand, and so on cannot be lost, stolen, or easily forged....4/9/2014 GMT