Sam Altman: Nuclear Energy for a Billion Years

July 13, 2023

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Sam Altman, CEO of OpenAI, is backing Oklo, a nuclear fission microreactor startup, aiming to take it public via a SPAC merger. Altman sees a future where the cost of energy and intelligence is significantly lowered, leading to global improvements. Oklo is working on commercializing smaller, safer nuclear reactors. The funds raised from going public will be used to build a pilot-scale production facility for its reactor, Aurora. Altman believes that the increasing demand for energy, particularly from the scaling up of artificial intelligence, can be met by nuclear energy, making it a necessary part of our future energy mix.


World's largest companies involved in nuclear energy production globally

  1. EDF (Electricité de France): A French electric utility company that operates a diverse portfolio of 58 nuclear power plants in France.
  2. Exelon Corporation: An American Fortune 100 energy company headquartered in Chicago. It operates the largest number of U.S. nuclear reactors.
  3. Rosatom: Russia's state nuclear energy corporation, which operates all nuclear assets of the Russian Federation, both civil and weapons.
  4. China General Nuclear Power Group (CGN): A major energy corporation under the SASAC of the State Council. CGN has projects in many countries and has become a significant player in the global nuclear power industry.
  5. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO): A Japanese electric utility holding company that operates multiple nuclear power plants.
  6. General Electric (GE) and Hitachi: These two companies have a joint venture, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, which is a provider of advanced reactors and nuclear services.
  7. Westinghouse Electric Company: A U.S. company that provides nuclear power plant products and services to utilities around the world.
  8. Orano (formerly AREVA): A French multinational group specializing in nuclear power and renewable energy.
  9. Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO): A South Korean company that provides electricity to almost all of South Korea and operates nuclear power plants.

Who are the largest consumers of nuclear powered energy?

In addition to providing electricity, nuclear energy has various other applications. Commercial reactors can power desalination plants, provide heat for metal refining, and even generate hydrogen as a clean burning alternative fuel for vehicles. These uses of nuclear energy could potentially increase its consumption in the future.

  1. United States: The United States was the leading country worldwide in terms of nuclear power consumption in 2021, with a consumption of 7.4 exajoules. This was more than the combined consumption of China and France, the next two largest consumers. The U.S. had 92 operable nuclear reactors as of May 2022, the most of any country.
  2. China: China's nuclear energy consumption increased by approximately 11 percent in 2021, reflecting the country's ongoing investment in nuclear power as part of its broader energy strategy. China had 54 operable reactors and 15 under construction as of May 2022.
  3. France: France is a major consumer of nuclear energy due to its heavy reliance on nuclear power for electricity generation. The country had 56 operable reactors as of May 2022.
  4. Nuclear Desalination: Desalination plants require energy in the form of heat to remove salt from saline water, making it drinkable. Dozens of U.S. nuclear energy companies are working on advanced reactor systems that can concurrently produce water and electricity when paired with desalination plants.
  5. Clean Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen is a key component of future energy systems and can be generated with little to no emissions with technologies like nuclear energy. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting four hydrogen demonstration projects at U.S. nuclear power plants to help scale up the production of clean hydrogen.
  6. Process Heating for Industry: Nuclear energy can provide high-temperature heat for industrial processes such as drying, manufacturing, refining, warming, and cooling. This heat is clean, reliable, and constant, making nuclear energy a viable alternative to fossil fuels for industrial process heat.

Who is developing fission energy?

One of the key players in the development of nuclear fission energy in 2023 is:

Oklo Inc.: Oklo is an advanced nuclear fission startup based in California, USA. The company announced in July 2023 that it would go public via a merger with AltC Acquisition Corp., a special purpose acquisition company co-founded by OpenAI CEO Sam Altman. Oklo is developing next-generation fast reactor technology and is pursuing an owner-operator model with an intention to sell power. The company's mission is to provide clean, reliable, affordable energy on a global scale.

It's worth noting that the development of nuclear fission technology is a complex and challenging endeavor that involves many different stakeholders, including government agencies, research institutions, and private companies.

List of Entities Developing Fission Energy

  1. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA): The DOE and NNSA announced the achievement of fusion ignition at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2022. This was a significant scientific breakthrough that will pave the way for advancements in national defense and the future of clean power. The experiment surpassed the fusion threshold by delivering 2.05 megajoules (MJ) of energy to the target, resulting in 3.15 MJ of fusion energy output, demonstrating for the first time a most fundamental science basis for inertial fusion energy (IFE).
  2. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project: ITER is the world's most advanced and largest fusion experiment, with seven international members (China, India, Japan, South Korea, the European Union, the Russian Federation, and the United States). Based on the tokamak concept (using a device that confines plasma through a magnetic field), ITER is currently being built in Cadarache, France. The Reactor is designed to achieve a fusion power gain of at least 10 and produce 500 Megawatt (MW) of fusion power. It will also test key technologies necessary for a fusion reactor.
  3. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF): IFMIF is a joint European-Japanese project that will be constructed in Japan and is planned to operate in parallel with ITER. IFMIF will test and select materials that can withstand the extreme conditions produced by high-energy fusion neutrons of future fusion reactors.
  4. DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Plant): Currently in the design stages, DEMO is expected to supply fusion electricity to the grid. DEMO will be a prototype of a commercial power plant built upon ITER. Its construction is expected to take place during the operation of ITER and IFMIF.
  5. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): The IAEA fosters international collaboration and coordination to help close the existing gaps in physics, technology, and regulation and move forward in developing the peaceful use of fusion energy. The Agency’s activities in this field cover, among others, plasma physics and fusion power, technologies and material, both for magnetic and inertial fusion.

Noteworthy green energy investments in 2023

Here are some noteworthy green energy investments in 2023:

  1. Global Clean Energy Investment: The recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic and the response to the global energy crisis have significantly boosted global clean energy investment. The anticipated spending in 2023 is expected to reach a record USD 2.8 trillion. This includes investment in renewable power, nuclear grids, storage, low-emission fuels, efficiency improvements, and end-use renewables and electrification.
  2. Renewables and Electric Vehicles (EVs): Renewables, led by solar, and EVs are leading the expected increase in clean energy investment in 2023. Solar is the star performer with more than USD 1 billion per day expected to go into solar investments in 2023 (USD 380 billion for the year as a whole). This spending is expected to edge above that in upstream oil for the first time. Demand for electric cars is booming, with sales expected to leap by more than one-third this year after a record-breaking 2022. As a result, investment in EVs has more than doubled since 2021, reaching USD 130 billion in 2023.
  3. Low-emission Power: In 2023, low-emissions power is expected to account for almost 90% of total investment in electricity generation.
  4. Fossil Fuel Companies: 2022 was an extraordinarily profitable year for many fossil fuel companies as they saw revenues soar on higher fuel prices. However, less than half of the oil and gas industry's unprecedented cash flow from the energy crisis is going back into traditional supply, and only a small fraction to clean technologies.
  5. Clean Energy vs Fossil Fuels: For every USD 1 spent on fossil fuels, USD 1.7 is now spent on clean energy. Five years ago, this ratio was 1:1.

Which countries lead in providing nuclear powered green energy?

Here are the countries that lead in providing nuclear-powered green energy in 2023:

  1. United States: With 96 total reactors, the United States generates over 800 terawatts of zero-emissions electricity per year. The reactors operate at full power over 92% of the time and have generated about one-fifth of the U.S.'s energy since the mid-1990s.
  2. France: France gets the largest share of nuclear power, which accounts for about 70.6% of the country's total electricity. France has the second-largest nuclear power production in the world of 38.42 gigawatts.
  3. China: China has a nuclear power production of 33.012 gigawatts.
  4. Russia: Russia has a nuclear power production of 19.554 gigawatts.
  5. South Korea: South Korea has a nuclear power production of 13.881 gigawatts.
  6. Canada: Canada has a nuclear power production of 9.485 gigawatts.
  7. Ukraine: Ukraine has a nuclear power production of 7.814 gigawatts.
  8. Japan: Japan has a nuclear power production of 6.568 gigawatts.
  9. Sweden: Sweden has a nuclear power production of 6.443 gigawatts.
  10. Spain: Spain has a nuclear power production of 5.586 gigawatts.

What is the size of Nuclear energy market?

Here is the size of the nuclear energy market in the United States:

  1. Market Size in 2022: The market size, measured by revenue, of the nuclear power industry was $381 billion in 2022.
  2. Growth Rate in 2022: The market size of the nuclear power industry increased by 4.9% in 2022.
  3. Growth Over the Past 5 Years: The market size of the nuclear power industry in the U.S. has declined by 1.2% per year on average between 2017 and 2022.
  4. Comparison with Other Industries: The market size of the nuclear power industry in the U.S. declined faster than the economy overall and the utilities sector.
  5. Ranking: The nuclear power industry in the U.S. was the 6th ranked utilities industry by market size and the 298th largest in the U.S. in 2022.
  6. Opportunity for Growth: In 2023, the price of electric power is set to increase, presenting a potential opportunity for nuclear power generators.

Where are some of the green energy providing nuclear powered plants located?

  1. United States: Approximately 20 percent of electricity generated in the United States comes from nuclear reactors. Commercial nuclear power plants in the United States are either boiling water reactors or pressurized water reactors. Most nuclear power plants are located along lakes, rivers, or seacoasts because the facilities use water to cool the reactors.
  2. Brazil: Angra Nuclear Power Plant is one of the nuclear power plants in Brazil.
  3. Russia: The world's first nuclear power station to generate electricity for a power grid, the Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, commenced operations in Obninsk in the Soviet Union in 1954.
  4. United Kingdom: The world's first full-scale power station, Calder Hall, opened in the United Kingdom in 1956.
  5. United States: The world's first full-scale power station solely devoted to electricity production, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, United States, was connected to the grid in 1957.
  6. Canada: Bruce Nuclear Generating Station is one of the largest operational nuclear power facilities in the world.
  7. Finland: Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant in Eurajoki, Finland, houses one of the most powerful reactors known as EPR.
  8. Romania: Unit 1 of the Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant in Romania is one of the nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe.
  9. United States: Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, located in the desert about 60 miles west of Phoenix, Arizona, is the only nuclear facility that does not use a natural body of water for cooling. Instead, it uses treated sewage from the greater Phoenix metropolitan area.

Which technology powers a nuclear fission plant?

  1. Nuclear Fission: Nuclear power plants produce heat through a process called fission. In this process, the nucleus of a heavy atom, such as uranium or plutonium, is split into two or more smaller nuclei along with some by-products. This process releases a large amount of energy in the form of heat.
  2. Heat to Steam: The heat produced by nuclear fission is used to heat water and convert it into steam.
  3. Steam to Mechanical Energy: The steam is then used to spin a turbine, which is a large wheel connected to a generator.
  4. Mechanical Energy to Electrical Energy: As the turbine spins, it turns the generator, which converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy. This electricity is then transmitted to homes and businesses.

In addition to generating electricity, nuclear power plants can also be used in other ways:

  1. Nuclear Desalination: Nuclear energy can be used to power desalination plants, which produce freshwater from seawater. This is particularly useful in regions that experience water scarcity.
  2. Clean Hydrogen Production: Nuclear power plants can be used to generate clean hydrogen, which can be used as a clean-burning alternative fuel for vehicles and in various industrial processes.
  3. Process Heating for Industry: Nuclear energy can provide process heat for industrial applications, such as drying, manufacturing, refining, warming, and cooling. This heat is clean, reliable, and constant.

What is the future of nuclear powered green energy?

Here are some key points about the future of nuclear-powered green energy:

  1. Increasing Demand for Electricity: The world will need significantly increased energy supply in the future, especially cleanly-generated electricity. Electricity demand is increasing about twice as fast as overall energy use and is likely to rise by more than half to 2040. Nuclear power provides about 10% of the world's electricity and 18% of electricity in OECD countries.
  2. Role of Nuclear Power: Almost all reports on future energy supply from major organizations suggest an increasing role for nuclear power as an environmentally benign way of producing reliable electricity on a large scale.
  3. Population Growth and Urbanization: Growth in the world's population and economy, coupled with rapid urbanization, will result in a substantial increase in energy demand over the coming years. The United Nations estimates that the world's population will grow from 7.8 billion in 2020 to around 8.5 billion in 2030 and 9.7 billion by 2050.
  4. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The challenge of meeting rapidly growing energy demand whilst reducing harmful emissions of greenhouse gases is considerable. Nuclear energy is a low-emitting source of electricity production and is also specifically low-carbon, emitting among the lowest amount of carbon dioxide equivalent per unit of energy produced when considering total lifecycle emissions.
  5. Future Projections: The International Energy Agency's (IEA) World Energy Outlook, the central scenario projects global nuclear capacity to grow from 396 gigawatts electrical (GWe) at the end of 2021 to 416 GWe in 2030, 438 GWe in 2040, and 873 GWe by 2050.
  6. Clean Air and Health Benefits: According to the World Health Organization, air pollution is the world's largest environmental risk. Much of the fine particulate matter in polluted areas arises from industrial sources such as power generation or from indoor air pollution, which could be averted by electricity use. Nuclear energy can contribute to cleaner air and improved health outcomes.
  7. Secure Energy Transitions: The IEA report on Nuclear Power and Secure Energy Transitions concluded that nuclear energy can help make the energy sector's journey away from unabated fossil fuels faster and more secure, with nuclear being well placed to help decarbonize electricity supply.

What is the difference in Private and Public Startup? and Why is Sam Altman getting in to Nuclear powered green energy?

Sam Altman's involvement in nuclear-powered green energy is driven by his belief in the potential of nuclear energy to provide a clean, safe, and cheap source of power at scale, which will be necessary to support the increasing demand for energy, particularly as the use of artificial intelligence scales up.

Private Startup: A private startup is a company that is owned by its founders, employees, and a select group of investors. These investors are typically venture capitalists or angel investors who provide funding in exchange for equity in the company. The financial information of a private startup is not publicly disclosed, and its shares are not available for purchase by the general public.

Public Startup: A public startup, on the other hand, is a company that has undergone an initial public offering (IPO) and has its shares traded on a public stock exchange. This process involves selling a portion of the company's equity to the public, which provides the company with access to a large pool of capital. The financial information of a public startup is publicly disclosed, and its shares can be bought and sold by any investor.

Now, let's discuss Sam Altman's involvement in nuclear-powered green energy:

Sam Altman, the CEO of OpenAI, is helping to take Oklo, an advanced nuclear fission microreactor startup, public via a Special Purpose Acquisition Company (SPAC) merger. Altman, who is also the chairman of Oklo's board, believes that the future can be radically better with the development of two technologies in parallel: AI and energy. He sees a future where the cost of energy and intelligence is lowered, leading to significant improvements in the world.

Altman's involvement in Oklo is part of his broader interest in energy. He believes that there is an urgent demand for cheap, safe, clean energy at scale. He sees nuclear energy as a necessary part of meeting this demand while moving away from burning fossil fuels, which cause global warming.

Oklo is working on commercializing nuclear fission using much smaller reactors. The capital raised by going public will go towards ramping up its supply chain and procurement processes and building a pilot-scale production facility for its reactor, which it calls Aurora.

Altman's vision is that if the use of artificial intelligence scales up in the way he sees it, it will demand a lot of energy. He sees nuclear energy, particularly the kind Oklo is working on, as a way to meet this demand. He is also invested in Helion, a company working on commercializing nuclear fusion, which is the way the sun generates energy and creates no long-lived nuclear waste.


  1. World Energy Investment 2023
  2. Nuclear Power by Country 2023
  3. World Energy Needs and Nuclear Power

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Sam Altman's involvement in nuclear-powered green energy

Sam Altman, the CEO of OpenAI, is helping to take Oklo, an advanced nuclear fission microreactor startup, public via a Special Purpose Acquisition Company (SPAC) merger. 

Oklo Inc.: Oklo is an advanced nuclear fission startup based in California, USA.


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