Hydrogen Storage and Transportation Technologies - Cost and Supply Chain Analysis
Current and evolving hydrogen storage and transportation technologies aim to address the challenges of storing and transporting hydrogen efficiently and safely.
Here are some notable technologies in this field:
- Compressed Gas Storage: Hydrogen can be stored in high-pressure tanks or cylinders as compressed gas. The gas is typically compressed to pressures ranging from 350 to 700 bar. Compressed gas storage is a mature technology and widely used for small-scale applications, such as hydrogen refueling stations and industrial use.
- Liquid Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen can be liquefied by cooling it to extremely low temperatures (-253°C or 20 K). Liquid hydrogen offers higher energy density compared to compressed gas storage, enabling more hydrogen to be stored in a given volume. It is commonly used in aerospace applications and for large-scale storage at hydrogen production and distribution facilities.
- Metal Hydride Storage: Metal hydrides can absorb and store hydrogen, releasing it when heated. This technology offers the advantage of reversible and safe hydrogen storage. However, metal hydrides typically have lower hydrogen storage capacity compared to compressed gas or liquid hydrogen storage, limiting their use to specific applications.
- Chemical Hydride Storage: Chemical hydrides, such as ammonia (NH3) or organic hydrides, can store hydrogen through chemical reactions. They have the potential to provide high-density hydrogen storage and enable easier transportation and handling. Chemical hydrides can be converted back to hydrogen when required using a catalyst or thermal energy.
- Hydrogen Carriers: Hydrogen carriers involve chemical compounds that can release hydrogen upon demand. One example is liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHC), which store hydrogen in a liquid form using a reversible hydrogenation and dehydrogenation process. Hydrogen carriers offer the advantage of easier and safer transportation and can utilize existing infrastructure like pipelines and tanker ships.
Regarding cost efficiency, it depends on various factors such as the scale of the storage or transportation system, technology maturity, and specific application requirements. Currently, compressed gas storage is relatively cost-efficient for smaller-scale applications, while larger-scale storage facilities often use liquid hydrogen storage due to its higher energy density. However, ongoing advancements and economies of scale are expected to drive down costs for emerging technologies such as chemical hydrides and hydrogen carriers.
To integrate these technologies into the current hydrogen supply chain, several considerations should be addressed:
- Infrastructure Development: Storage and transportation infrastructure, such as pipelines, storage tanks, and refueling stations, must be established or retrofitted to accommodate the specific storage and transportation methods chosen.
- Safety and Regulatory Compliance: Stringent safety measures and regulations should be in place to ensure the safe handling, storage, and transportation of hydrogen in different forms.
- System Integration: The storage and transportation technologies must be seamlessly integrated into the existing supply chain, considering factors like compatibility with existing infrastructure and equipment.
- Logistics and Distribution Planning: Optimal logistics and distribution networks need to be designed to efficiently transport hydrogen from production facilities to end-use applications, considering factors like distance, demand, and storage requirements.
Integrating these technologies in the current supply chain will require collaboration between industry stakeholders, policymakers, and infrastructure developers to address technical, economic, and regulatory challenges.